Presently, software estimation is considered to be an art rather than a science. At the heart of this perception is the lack of understanding of the concept of "productivity." This article attempts to provide insight into the concept of productivity.
financial ratio programs
including a feasibility study, financial budgeting, and approvals for the project (that is, financial and technical approval, and project go-ahead ) project start-up activities, such as identifying the project manager, allocating the project team, and setting up the development environment; project planning; setting up various protocols, namely, service level agreements and progress reporting formalities; and project-related training software engineering activities, namely, user requirements analysis;