For many companies, traditional business intelligence (BI) software is costly and resource-intensive. So are open source alternatives that require significant configuration and integration. In contrast, software-as-a-service (SaaS) solutions can reduce the cost of a BI deployment by providing automation and pre-integration. Compare total cost of ownership (TCO) for traditional, open source, and SaaS BI solutions.
hierarchy of risks
missing value handling, parent-child hierarchy unrolling, time-based sequence analysis, special-purpose business logic, custom record-matching and lookups, etc. In both on-premise and Open Source BI toolsets, data transformation and cleansing is accomplished using independent ETL tools (e.g. Kettle.) These tools are designed for generalized data movement that involve the following steps: attach to a source data source, extract a series of rows, create some sort of transformation of those rows, and output